# 1

This number is a unit (so is neither prime nor composite).

Any integer *greater than one* is called a **prime number** if (and only if) its only positive divisors (factors) are one and itself.

The number 1 is considered neither prime or composite but in a class of its own. It is the multiplicative identity, so it is also a unit and a divisor of unity.

Every natural number is the period length of at least 1 prime.

The number of factors of an integer can be found by adding 1 to the exponent of each prime factor and then calculating the product. For example, the prime factorization of 12 is 2^{2} * 3 and 12 has (2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 6 factors.

The chance of a random integer *x* being prime is about 1 over log(*x*).

Unlike the original proof of the Prime Number Theorem from 1896 by Hadamard and Poussin, Erdös and Selberg's proof in 1949 did not employ the square root of -1.

Henry Ernest Dudeney's 3-by-3 magic square contains "1" nonprime:

67 | 01 | 43 |

13 | 37 | 61 |

31 | 73 | 07 |

Bertrand's postulate asserts the existence of *at least one* prime between *n* and 2*n*.

Johann H. Lambert (1728-1777), announced without proof that every
prime number has at least *one* primitive root.

The only proper divisor of primes. [Beedassy]

Ernst Gabor Strauss (1922--1983) was said to have replied to a student's question about why 1 is not a prime: "The primes are the building bricks for arithmetic, and 1 is just not a brick!"

Mersenne primes can be written as unbroken strings of consecutive 1s in binary form.

The only number with exactly one positive divisor. [Gupta]

The only number whose concatenation with itself can yield primes in many cases. [Murthy]

There is only 1 "Prime Street" in England. It is in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire. [Croll]

Bertrand's Postulate guarantees that in every base there is at least one prime of any given length beginning with the digit 1, and Benford's Law tells us that primes with leading digit 1 occur more often than primes beginning with any other digit in all bases. [Rupinski]

Carl Sagan included the number 1 in an example of prime numbers in his book *Cosmos*.

The smallest number *n* such that 10*n* + 1, 10*n* + 3,
10*n* + 7 and 10*n* + 9 are all primes. [Firoozbakht]

π(1) = !1, where !1 denotes subfactorial 1. [Gupta]

The only number that is exactly 1/2 prime. [McAlee]

If primes were called pints, then we could say, "1 is a half-pint." [McAlee]

George Bernard Riemann extended Euler's Zeta function to include the sans' simple pole at s = 1. [McAlee]

1 is the only positive integer whose primal code characteristic is 1. [Awbrey]

The number 1 is an "extinct" prime since it was once thought to be prime by many and now is no longer considered to be prime. [Hilliard]

The remainder of division of the Mersenne numbers 2^{p} - 1 by p is always equal to 1. [Capelle]

The number of primes between two squares is never equal to 1. [Capelle]

Henri Lebesgue (1875-1941) is said to be the last professional mathematician to call 1 prime.

In his *Elements of Algebra*, Euler did not consider 1 a prime. [Waterhouse]

The first orbit of an atom is the only orbit having the maximum possible number of electrons equal to a prime number. [Gudipati]

The Egyptian fraction 1/6 + 1/10 + 1/14 + 1/15 + 1/21 + 1/22 + 1/26 + 1/33 + 1/34 + 1/35 + 1/38 + 1/39 + 1/46 + 1/51 + 1/55 + 1/57 + 1/58 + 1/62 + 1/65 + 1/69 + 1/77 + 1/82 + 1/85 + 1/86 + 1/87 + 1/91 + 1/93 + 1/95 + 1/115 + 1/119 + 1/123 + 1/133 + 1/155 + 1/187 + 1/203 + 1/209 + 1/215 + 1/221 + 1/247 + 1/265 + 1/287 + 1/299 + 1/319 + 1/323 + 1/391 + 1/689 + 1/731 + 1/901 = 1. Note that each denominator is semiprime. Found by ALLAN Wm. JOHNSON Jr. of Washington, D.C.

1 = 69709^3 - 56503^3 - 54101^3, where all integers used (other than the unit), are prime numbers. [Rivera]

Every Mersenne prime is represented in binary as a string of 1's. [Brink]

Why isn't 1 a prime number?

1-digit nonprime solutions using all of the 1-digit primes: [7+3/5*2] = 1; [7-5-3+2] = 1; [7+5/3!*2] = 1; [5*3-7*2] = 1. [Worrom]

The set of primes which have lead digit 1 does not have relative natural density in the prime numbers.

1 is the "blacksheep" of numbers. [Müller]